How to avoid the ATO auditing your family trust

Max Newnham
Published: July 26, 2016 – 9:44AM

When the owners of a business want the flexibility of distributing income to family members, to reduce the impact of income tax on net business income, a discretionary family trust with a company acting as trustee provides flexibility from a tax planning point of view and legal protection.

There have been examples in the past of people that have used family trusts to reduce the tax payable on what is really employment income. Since the introduction of the personal services income rules the ability to unfairly save tax on employment income has been reduced.

Where a business is operated through a family trust and family members work in the business there are steps that can be taken, to ensure that in the event of an ATO audit, no penalties will be imposed.

Q. I run a tourist attraction that is operated through a family trust and need someone to help me. I would like to know what the legalities of having a nephew working in my business for a share of the profit via a distribution from the Trust? How is this best structured to protect both me and him in event of accident, and what important things should the distribution agreement cover?

A. One of the areas that the ATO focuses on when conducting auditing a business is the people that work within it, and the level of salaries and wages they receive. Where the ATO can show that the profit of the businesses being inflated, by underpaying salaries, business owners can find themselves not only facing income tax penalties but also SGC and WorkCover penalties.

Your ability to distribute profits from your family trust to your nephew will not depend on a distribution agreement, but instead on the wording of your family trust deed. To distribute to your nephew he would either need to be named as a beneficiary of the trust in its deed, or be a relative of a named beneficiary.

Typically a family trust deed will state who the primary beneficiaries are, then allow profit to be distributed to secondary beneficiaries who are a relative of a primary beneficiary, and tertiary beneficiaries who are a relative of a secondary beneficiary. If you are not sure whether you trust deed will allow you to distribute to your nephew you should seek professional advice.

I do not believe you would receive the amount of protection you require by distributing profits to your nephew. As he will be working in your business you should pay him a commercial wage. As part of this process you would need to also pay WorkCover insurance, which provides the protection in the event of him having an accident, and also make compulsory super contributions.

If you did not have him as an employee and distributed profits you would be at risk if he had an accident, and also if the ATO audited your business he would classed as an employee and then pay SGC and WorkCover penalties.

Questions on small business income tax and other issues can be emailed to Max Newnham is a partner in the accounting firm TaxBiz Australia and founder of

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Australia’s skilled migrants: job outcomes improve but many skills still wasted

Inga Ting
Published: July 24, 2016 – 12:47PM

Many Australians have met migrants working in occupations far below their skills level: the dentist working as a cleaner; the former university lecturer driving a taxi.

But the tide appears to be turning for at least some of Australia’s skilled migrants, with new research showing that those arriving with tertiary qualifications in the past five years are twice as likely to work in their field as those who arrived more than 15 years ago.

Nearly 40 per cent of migrants who came after 2010 and already had tertiary qualifications are working in their field, compared with 20 per cent of those who arrived before 2001, according to the latest figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Policy changes focused on boosting the scale of skilled migration and enhancing English-language screening have greatly improved job outcomes for migrants, said Lesleyanne Hawthorne, an internationally-recognised migration expert from the University of Melbourne. Skilled migrants now make up more than two-thirds of migrants to Australia, up from less than half about 20 years ago.

“If you compare Canada and Australia in terms of skilled migration 15 years ago … about 60 per cent [of skilled migrants] were employed in six months,” she said.

“With Australia’s policy changes we’ve moved to 83 per cent within six months. Canada’s stayed pretty much the same.”

However, the gains for migrants attaining tertiary qualifications after arrival – mostly international students – have not been evenly distributed, Professor Hawthorne said.

For example, her own research shows that less than 10 per cent of recently-arrived migrants with degrees in business or commerce were employed in their field, compared with nearly 30 per cent for engineering, 57 per cent for medicine and 66 per cent for nursing.

Sisters Andrea and Audrey Kraal, who came to Australia from Malaysia as international students, had very different experiences in the graduate job market.

Andrea, who came to Australia in 2012 and completed a bachelor of mechanical engineering at UNSW, secured full-time employment even before she had graduated.

“In my second year [of studying in Australia] I got a part-time job at my current company as a mechanical engineer, and that’s how I got in,” Andrea said. “I was really lucky.”

By contrast, Audrey, who finished studying in 2009 and holds a bachelor in business and masters in accounting at UTS, needed months to find relevant work.

“It was really hard … There’s a lot of accountants out there. You’re competing with people who have more experience,” Audrey said.

Many accounting, business and IT graduates would have had similar experiences because these fields were oversupplied, Professor Hawthorne said. The problem was compounded by “shonky operators” in the private sector churning out students with very poor training, she said.

The government has since changed its policy so only bachelor or higher degree graduates are eligible for post-study work visas.

Australia imported skills to reduce the pressure under-investment in local skills creation, said UTS professor of sociology Andrew Jakubowicz.

And yet “historically … Australia has wasted a lot of the skills of its migrants,” he said.

Seven in 10 migrants who arrived after 2010 have tertiary qualifications, compared with four in 10 of those who arrived before 2001, ABS figures show.

“We pick the cream of the crop,” Jock Collins, professor of social economics at UTS Business School, said.

Immigrants are increasingly selected for their university qualifications but “in too many cases prospective employers do not recognise these qualifications once they are in Australia.”

“The cliche of medical professionals, PhDs and other highly educated immigrants driving cabs for a living or getting jobs as unskilled labourers is, sadly, very true today,” Professor Collins said.

Recently-arrived migrants make up 5 per cent of Australia’s tertiary-qualified workforce but 12 per cent of labourers, according to ABS figures.

The same research shows recently-arrived migrants workers are nearly twice as likely as Australian-born workers to have a university degree.

“This is a form of market failure,” Professor Collins said.

It hurts migrants’ occupational mobility and makes the Australian economy less productive and innovative, and yet it is immigrants who often get blamed for economic problems, he said.

Even migrants who tried to upgrade their skills or have their overseas qualification recognised faced hurdles because they often had to take up unskilled work while in training, said Stephen Castles, Research Chair in Sociology at the University of Sydney.

“Later on it’s very hard for them then to get a job that matches that qualification because they were already doing unskilled work,” Professor Castles said.

“The same goes for international students … who may have a well-recognised bachelors and come here for a masters or PhD, but while they’re studying, they’re doing unskilled work.”

However, Professor Hawthorne said Australia’s skilled migration program was the envy of other advanced economies.

“In world terms, Australia has exceptional outcomes,” Professor Hawthorne said.

“Not perfect, but exceptional.”

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How to recognise a narcissist

Jane Brody
Published: July 22, 2016 – 12:15AM

Does this sound like anyone you know?

  • Highly competitive in virtually all aspects of his life, believing he (or she) possesses special qualities and abilities that others lack; portrays himself as a winner and all others as losers.
  • Displays a grandiose sense of self, violating social norms, throwing tantrums, even breaking laws with minimal consequences; generally behaves as if entitled to do whatever he wants regardless of how it affects others.
  • Shames or humiliates those who disagree with him, and goes on the attack when hurt or frustrated, often exploding with rage.
  • Arrogant, vain and haughty and exaggerates his accomplishments; bullies others to get his own way.
  • Lies or distorts the truth for personal gain, blames others or makes excuses for his mistakes, ignores or rewrites facts that challenge his self-image, and won’t listen to arguments based on truth.

These are common characteristics of extreme narcissists as described by Joseph Burgo, a clinical psychologist, in his book “The Narcissist You Know.” While we now live in a culture that some would call narcissistic, with millions of people constantly taking selfies, spewing out tweets and posting everything they do on YouTube and Facebook, the extreme narcissists Burgo describes are a breed unto themselves. They may be highly successful in their chosen fields but extremely difficult to live with and work with.

Of course, nearly all of us possess one or more narcissistic traits without crossing the line of a diagnosable disorder. And it is certainly not narcissistic to have a strong sense of self-confidence based on one’s abilities.

“Narcissism exists in many shades and degrees of severity along a continuum,” Burgo said, and for well-known people he cites as extreme narcissists, he resists making an ad hoc diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association.

The association’s diagnostic manual lists a number of characteristics that describe narcissistic personality disorder, among them an impaired ability to recognise or identify with the feelings and needs of others, grandiosity and feelings of entitlement, and excessive attempts to attract attention.

Dr. Giancarlo Dimaggio of the Center for Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy in Rome wrote in Psychiatric Times that “persons with narcissistic personality disorder are aggressive and boastful, overrate their performance, and blame others for their setbacks.”

According to the Mayo Clinic, people with a narcissistic personality disorder think so highly of themselves that they put themselves on a pedestal and value themselves more than they value others. They may come across as conceited or pretentious. They tend to monopolise conversations, belittle those they consider inferior, insist on having the best of everything and become angry or impatient if they don’t get special treatment.

Underlying their overt behaviour, however, may be “secret feelings of insecurity, shame, vulnerability and humiliation,” Mayo experts wrote. To ward off these feelings when criticised, they “may react with rage or contempt and try to belittle the other person.”

Burgo, who sees clients by Skype from his home in Colorado, noted that many “grandiose narcissists are drawn to politics, professional sports, and the entertainment industry because success in these fields allows them ample opportunity to demonstrate their winner status and to elicit admiration from others, confirming their defensive self-image as a superior being.”

The causes of extreme narcissism are not precisely known. Theories include parenting styles that overemphasise a child’s special abilities and criticise his fears and failures, prompting a need to appear perfect and command constant attention.

Although narcissism has not been traced to one kind of family background, Burgo wrote that “a surprising number of extreme narcissists have experienced some kind of early trauma or loss,” such as parental abandonment. The family lives of several famous narcissists he describes, Lance Armstrong among them, are earmarked by “multiple failed marriages, extreme poverty and an atmosphere of physical and emotional violence.”

As a diagnosable personality disorder, narcissism occurs more often in males than females, often developing in the teenage years or early adulthood and becoming more extreme with age. It occurs in an estimated 0.5 percent of the general population, and 6 per cent of people who have encounters with the law who have mental or emotional disorders. One study from Italy found that narcissistic personality traits were present in as many as 17 percent of first-year medical students.

As bosses and romantic partners, narcissists can be insufferable, demanding perfection, highly critical and quick to rip apart the strongest of egos. Employee turnover in companies run by narcissists and divorce rates in people married to them are high.

“The best defence for employees who choose to stay is to protect the bosses’ egos and avoid challenging them,” Burgo said in an interview. His general advice to those running up against extreme narcissists is to “remain sane and reasonable” rather than engaging them in “battles they’ll always win.”

Despite their braggadocio, extreme narcissists are prone to depression, substance abuse and suicide when unable to fulfil their expectations and proclamations of being the best or the brightest.

The disorder can be treated, though therapy is neither quick nor easy. It can take an insurmountable life crisis for those with the disorder to seek treatment. “They have to hit rock bottom, having ruined all their important relationships with their destructive behavior,” Burgo said. “However, this doesn’t happen very often.”

No drug can reverse a personality disorder. Rather, talk therapy can, over a period of years, help people better understand what underlies their feelings and behaviour, accept their true competence and potential, learn to relate more effectively with other people and, as a result, experience more rewarding relationships.

The New York Times

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Latest Book on 1965 war


Lieutenant General Tajindar Shergill and Captain Amarinder Singh’s book The Monsoon war is an encyclopedic work on 1965 India-Pakistan war. It is a detailed account of operations of all phases of 1965 war from the perspectives of junior officers. Authors have used extensive Indian material as well as Pakistani sources to provide a detailed picture of the conflict.

Book starts with the background of the conflict that culminated in open war in 1965. This is followed by details about the Run of Kutch conflict that was prelude to the war. Chapter five is especially a good read as it provides details of armor equipment of both armies and advantages and disadvantages. This helps the non-military reader to understand strengths and weaknesses of rival armies during the conflict. Authors provide details of some of the challenges faced by Indian army in the aftermath of Indo-China conflict of 1962. Rapid expansion of Indian army resulted in poorly armed and poorly trained formations. If Indian army was producing ‘nine months wonders’ for Indian army officer corps, Pakistan army was producing ‘pre-mature’ officers from Officers Training School with only eight months of training. In early 1960s, Pakistani officers were not happy with the pay as it had remained stagnant as well as lack of accommodations. When troops were used to construct accommodations, there was resentment among soldiers as they saw it below their dignity to work as laborers. Pakistani tanks had not carried out any tank firing for over two years as training ammunition provided by Americans was hoarded as ‘war reserve’. However, when war started majority of officers and soldiers on both sides fought to the best of their abilities.

Contrary to popular perceptions in Pakistan about Muslims of India, it is interesting to note that a number of Muslim soldiers and officers fought on Indian side. Lieutenant Colonel Salim Caleb (later Major General) was commanding 3rd Cavalry. 4th Grenadiers was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Farhat Bhatti (later Major General) and class composition of the battalion was A and B Jat, C Kaim Khani Muslim and D Dogra companies. GSO-3 of a division was Abdul Rasul Khan of 4th Grenadiers (later Colonel). Lieutenant Colonel Salim Chaudhri was CO of 4th Rajputana Rifles, Major A. K. Khan was 2IC of 8th Garhwal Rifles and B Squadron of 18th Cavalry was a Muslim squadron. Ironically, the platoon that ambushed Pakistani Brigadier A. R. Shami’s jeep in which he was killed was a Muslim platoon of 4th Grenadiers. Company Quartermaster Havaldar Abdul Hamid of 4th Grenadiers won a posthumous highest gallantry award Param Vir Chakra (PVC).

On page 108, it is suggested that change of command of 12th Division in the middle of operations from Major General Akhtar Hussain Malik to Major General Yahya Khan may be due to the fact that Malik was an Ahmadi (a heterodox sect of Muslims) and high command wanted to deny him the honor. The question of change of command has never been explained but sectarian factor was probably not the reason. Official ostracization and persecution of Ahmadis started much later in 1970s. At the time of 1965 war, disproportionately large number of Ahmadis was serving in all branches of armed forces. A number of Ahmadis were senior officers and many performed very well.

Book gives some insight into regimental intrigues. It is claimed that Corps Commander XV Corps Lieutenant General Katoch due to resentment over not being appointed Colonel of Sikh Regiment was responsible for not forwarding gallantry awards recommendations for 2nd Sikh Regiment. It is to the credit of Indian army as well as government that people were taken to the task for the acts of omission and commission. 161st Field Artillery Regiment serving under 10th Infantry Division abandoned its guns. Later, CO of the regiment was court martialled and GOC of 10th Division Major General B. D. Chopra was relieved of his command. GOC 15th Division Major General Niranjan Prasad was relieved of his command on September 07 and replaced by Major General Mohindar Singh. In fact irate Corps Commander XI Corps Lieutenant General Jogindar Singh Dhillon threatened Prasad with an immediate court martial in the field with the likelihood of being found guilty and shot. CO of 15th Dogra Lieutenant Colonel Indirjeet Singh was one step ahead of his retreating soldiers when panic struck the battalion. He first went straight to brigade headquarters and despite Brigade commander’s efforts raced all the way back to division headquarters. He was promptly placed under arrest, later court martialled, dismissed from service and given three year imprisonment sentence. CO of 13th Punjab was also removed from command. 48th Brigade Commander Brigadier K.J.S. Shahany was also relieved of his command and replaced by Brigadier Piara Singh. Pakistan army also penalized some officers but many were simply removed from the command and no detailed inquiries were conducted.

Book mentions role of some officers in 1965 war with amazing life experiences. Brigadier Anthony Albert ‘Tony’ Lumb was commander of 4th Armored Brigade of Pakistan army consisting of 5th Probyn’s Horse and 10th Frontier Force (FF). He was commissioned in 9th Royal Deccan Horse and this regiment was allotted to India in 1947. Tony opted for Pakistan army. In Khem Karan theatre, Tony was fighting against his old regiment Royal Deccan Horse of Indian army. In 1947 when Indian army was divided, Proby’s Horse and Deccan Horse had exchanged squadrons. In 1965, old Probyn’s squadron now carrying regimental color of Royal Deccan Horse was fighting against its own old regiment as Probyn’s Horse was part of 4th Armored Brigade. Tony was a Gallian; alumni of Lawrence College Ghora Gali. He migrated to Canada in 1967 where he died in 2013.

Major General Niranjan Prasad was commissioned in 4th Battalion of 12th Frontier Force Regiment (now 6 Frontier Force Regiment). This is parent battalion of current Pakistan army Chief General Raheel Sharif. Prasad was later seconded to Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF) as Flight Lieutenant and fought Second World War with air force. He served with No: 1 Squadron commanded by K. K. Majumdar. Even in this capacity, he saved his battalion. 4/12 FFR was in Burma and during withdrawal towards Sittang and in the fog of war was strafed by RIAF planes. Prasad recognized the markings of his own battalion and helped in stopping the strafing by calling off further attacks. Later, he commanded No: 8 Squadron. Many other army officers also joined RIAF and never reverted back to army. Asghar Khan later became Air Marshal and C-in-C of Pakistan air force and Diwan Atma Ram Nanda retired as Air Vice Marshal in Indian air force. Prasad reverted back to army as he had problems with his commander. In 1962 Indo-China war, he was commanding 4th Division, was blamed for the disaster of 7th Brigade and sacked. A humiliated Prasad went to the airfield alone and not even a Junior Commissioned Officer (JCO) was sent to see him off. He petitioned the President against his sacking and was re-instated. 15th Division was raised in October 1964 and Prasad was appointed GOC. After the war games, his Corps Commander and Army Commander recommended his removal as he was found not fit to command. In a meeting with Chief of Army Staff (COAS), he was only given warning but not removed from the command. Chief gave the reason that Prasad had influence with higher authorities in Delhi and that they should ‘go easy on him’. Poor command cost Indian army dearly and a day after the start of the war Prasad was removed from the command. He had already written a representation against his sacking and Pakistanis got hold of it when his jeep was captured that contained his brief case.

Lieutenant (later Major) Shamshad Ahmed of 25th Cavalry of Pakistan army was the grandson of legendry Risaldar Major Anno Khan of 17th Poona Horse. Anno Khan decided to stay in India at the time of partition. His one son Yunus Khan also stayed in India, serving with 17th Poona Horse and retired as Risaldar. Anno’s other son Mehboob Khan had also served with 17th Horse and retired as Daffadar. In 1947, Mehboob decided to come to Pakistan. Mehboob’s son Shamshad Ahmad joined Pakistan army. In 1965 war, he was serving with 25th Cavalry of Pakistan army and his regiment fought against 17th Poona Horse; his family regiment. If Mehboob had decided to stay in India, it was very likely that his son Shamshad would have joined his family regiment and fighting against 25th Cavalry.

Indian and Pakistan armies are continuation of the Raj and they learned good sportsmanship from their British predecessors. They kept those traditions even during the war. In June 1965 during Run of Kutch operation Major Khusdil Khan Afridi (later Lieutenant General) of 8th Frontier Force Regiment of Pakistan army was captured. Afridi was winner of sword of honor of 4th Pakistan Military Academy (PMA) course. He was captured by Major Venky Patel (later Lieutenant General) then serving as OP of 1 Mahar commanded by Lieutenant Colonel (later General) K. Sundarji. Famous Indian actor Raj Kapoor’s hit movie Sangam was the talk of the day and Afridi requested if he could see the movie. He was taken under military escort to Ahmadabad to a theatre to watch the movie and then flown to Delhi to enjoy the fond memory of the movie during his captivity. Two pictures reproduced below taken immediately after ceasefire reflects the professionalism on both sides. In one picture Major Hira Singh is embracing Major Shafqat Baloch for putting up such a good show. In second picture, Indian officers are posing with their arms around their Pakistani counterparts when they met after cease fire. I remember another incident in 1971 war when an Indian officer after accepting the surrender of Pakistani officers took them to the mess and ordered a round of drinks before sending them off to captivity.

On page 1 is mentioned that Iskander Mirza was a former Major General in the Pakistan army and then transferred to the political service. This statement is incorrect as Mirza never served in Pakistan army. He was the first Indian commissioned from Sandhurst in 1920. Mirza joined his parent 33rd Cavalry Regiment stationed at Jhansi in 1922 after serving a year with a British regiment. Around the same time reorganization of Indian army was under way and 33rd Cavalry and 34th Cavalry were in the process of amalgamation to form 17th Poona Horse. Mirza remained with his regiment for only four years and transferred to Indian Political Service (IPS) in August 1926. He was Captain when he resigned his commission. He became Secretary Defense in newly independent state of Pakistan. Later, he became Governor General and President of Pakistan. Mirza was given the honorary rank of Major General for protocol purposes.

On page 2 it is mentioned that Ayub Khan’s father Mir Dad Khan was Risaldar Major of Hodson Horse. Mir Dad retired as Risaldar and not Risaldar Major of 9th Hodson Horse. He was enlisted in 1887 and during Great War; he went to France with his regiment in October 1914. He was evacuated to India due to ill health in 1915. He served with the regimental depot and retired in August 1918. He was awarded Order of British India (OBI) for his long and meritorious service but no gallantry award. During war, regiment’s list of Risaldar Majors includes Mir Jafar Khan, Malik Khan Muhammad and Dost Muhammad Khan. Mir Dad’s lifelong best friend and regimental buddy was Risaldar Muhammad Akram Khan and this friendship extended to the next generation. Mir Dad’s son Filed Marshal Ayub Khan and Akram Khan’s son Lieutenant General Azam Khan (4/19 Hyderabad Regiment) were close friends but in the end got estranged when jealousies of power crept in the relationship. On Page 83 CRPF is described as Central Reserve Peace Keeping Force but it should be Central Reserve Police Force.

On page 108, it is mentioned that ‘Yahya Khan was a Shia and a Pathan, as was Musa Khan’. This is only partially true as both were Shia but not Pathans. Major General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan was Shia but Persian speaking Qazalbash from Peshawar while General Muhammad Musa Khan was a Shia but Persian speaking Hazara from Quetta. On page 233, it is mentioned that Lieutenant Khizar Ullah of 3 SP Field Artillery Regiment had won sword of honor at PMA Kakul. I have list of all sword of honor winners of PMA Kakul and didn’t find the above named officer. It may be a mistake.

Monsoon war is an excellent and very thorough work about the conflict. It is to the credit of both authors that despite close personal relationship with some senior officers, they have remained objective and critically evaluated the conduct of war by senior brass. This book should be on the shelves of every military institution of training and instruction of India and Pakistan. Three works are essential in the library of anyone who is interested in the history of 1965 Indo-Pakistan war. In addition to Monsoon war, the other two works are Lieutenant General ® Mahmud Ahmad’s and Major ® Agha H. Amin’s encyclopedic work on Indian-Pakistan war of 1965.

Lieutenant General Tajindar Shergill and Captain Amarinder Singh. The Monsoon War: Young Officers Reminiscence 1965 India-Pakistan War (New Delhi: Lustre Press Roli Books, 2015)

Hamid Hussain
April 29, 2016
Defence Journal, May 2016.

>>> everyone has a RIGHT to TELL his side of Story. Every soldier has a story = truth to tell. War is won by POWERFUL. There is no match between HUGE INDIA and Military blinded Pakistan where even Polio rules ! I am Pakistani and hate what Military has done to every brain and city of MY PAKISTAN. By Military I mean Zia’s Military ideology. <<<

Sydney Taxi Industry and Uber

Cabcharge wants cap on new taxi licences scrapped so industry can take on Uber

Matt O’Sullivan
Published: April 28, 2016 – 4:25PM

Taxis would become more commonplace on Sydney’s streets to ensure passengers who book cabs are picked up more quickly, under a controversial proposal by Cabcharge to scrap the cap on plates.

In a call that puts it at odds with the NSW Taxi Council, Cabcharge chief executive Andrew Skelton said the cap on the number of plates meant a “capacity constraint” had been placed on a part of the market to protect licence-plate holders.

“To arbitrarily go, ‘right, no more licences for four more years, you can’t grow’ – I think that’s nuts,” he told Fairfax Media.

“Taxis have to be able to evolve and grow into this massive transport opportunity … not at some contrived pace to protect some licence holders. The taxi industry is not licence holders.”

As part of the legalisation of ride-sharing services such as UberX in December, the Baird government placed a four-year freeze on the release of taxi licences in Sydney to “help the industry adjust”.

Taxi licence holders have watched the value of their investments in plates plunge since reaching a high of about $430,000 in 2012.

The average transfer value of a taxi licence in Sydney has slumped by 41 per cent to $210,000 over the past year, the latest government figures show.

The state has almost 7300 taxi licence plates, about 5700 of which are in Sydney.

NSW Taxi Council chief executive Roy Wakelin-King said the priority should be to let the market settle before the government considered releasing more taxi licences.

“We are all looking for a strong and viable industry … but we just have to make sure we chart a very careful pathway,” he said.

Mr Wakelin-King said the government’s recent decision to put a freeze on taxi licences was sensible because a large number had been released in recent years, resulting in an oversupply of cabs.

However, he said the council was open to changes to the number of taxi licences at some point in the future to ensure the industry did not put itself at a disadvantage to competitors.

In December, the government announced payments of $20,000 to owners of taxi licence plates in perpetuity. The one-off payment has been capped at $40,000 for owners of multiple plates.

The compensation package includes a fund of up to $142 million for taxi licensees who face hardship as a result of the changes, and a buyback scheme for perpetual hire-car licences. It is to be funded by a $1 levy on taxi and ride-sharing operators for five years.

A spokesman for Transport Minister Andrew Constance said there was no evidence that the decision to put a stop to new taxi licences for four years was holding back the industry from reform.

“[It] will help stabilise the market for taxi licences, particularly for mum and dad investors,” he said.

Facing intense competition from ride-sharing operators and a cut to revenue from fees on card payments for taxis, Cabcharge is eager to highlight its focus on customers and the need for more taxis to ensure passengers are picked up promptly once they book cabs.

It is a similar strategy to ride-sharing companies such as Uber and GoCar, which aim for a critical mass of vehicles at any one time.

Mr Skelton said he wanted the removal of the “artificial limit on the taxi industry’s ability to service customers” because it risked losing customers if it did not adapt.

“The less relevant you make taxis, the less value there is in a licence,” he said.

Cabcharge, one of the Taxi Council’s most influential members, still makes the lion’s share of its revenue from the service fees on passengers who pay for taxis with credit or debit cards.

However, the sharemarket-listed company has been hit over the past 18 months by state governments, including NSW, halving the fee it can charge for processing taxi payments to 5 per cent.

The freeze on plates in NSW does not apply to wheelchair-accessible taxi licences.

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Basic Math in Excel

Course summary: Basic math in Excel 2013

Let Excel be your calculator

With a simple formula, Excel can perform calculations on numbers using operators, such as the plus sign, and functions, such as SUM.

Add numbers

To add numbers, you use the plus sign (+). A formula always starts with an equals sign. Then type a number, a plus sign, another number, and then press Enter, and the cell displays the results.

Subtract numbers

Subtracting is similar to adding, except you use the minus sign (-). Click a cell, then a minus sign, then another cell, and press Enter.

Multiply numbers

Multiplying is similar to adding or subtracting, except you use an asterisk (*). Click a cell, then an asterisk, then another cell, and press Enter.

Divide numbers

Dividing is similar to multiplying, except you use a forward slash (/). Click a cell, then a forward slash, then another cell, and press Enter.


Click the cell to the right of a row or below a column. Then, on the Hometab, click AutoSum, verify that the formula is what you want, and click AutoSumagain.

AutoSum adds the row or column automatically.

Operator order

Excel uses the standard math rules of operator order in formulas. Calculations in parentheses are evaluated first, inner to outer if they’re nested. Exponents are evaluated next, then multiplication and division, working from left to right. Last in operator order are addition and subtraction, working from left to right.

See also


There are extremist Muslims but they are all SALAFI/WAHHABI or similar Taliban = USA creations

Very sad but true reality. I must add Middle East is still kept tribal by its “leaders”. They are not tax collecting countries in modern sense.

Adila Shah Yea they def have their problems but some of the things ppl r posting against Islam in general is just so disturbing. It’s getting very real in America now. The need for education on the topic.

Danish Bahi Yes Americans are becoming more anti – Islam. It will pass Adila. Just like WW 1 and WW 2 German and Japan A-Bomb hostilities passed. Russian and USA and UK were fighting Germany + Japan. Within couple of decades (around 1960s) Japan and Germany were BEST FRIENDS of USA and Russia became bad enemy.
So much lost in Vietnam …. now friends. Vietnam does not hold today’s USA as criminal for all those bad bombs and things USA did for so long in vietnam. WHEN DID VIETNAM threaten USA ? Just being communist became a crime (some domino theory).
Danish Bahi If Americans find faults in Islam, then tell them = All plane attackers of 9/11 were WAHHABI = Saudia “Islamists” except one. Plus this Saudia Royal family “creating” Wahhabi / Salafi “Islam” were put on Arabian population by UK ! After first world war OTTOMAN EMPIRE (Muslim) was broken up (Ottoman sided with loser Germany in WW1) and OTTOMAN ruled areas of Arabia, UAE, Jordan, Iraq etc = ALL THESE COUNTRIES did NOT exist and were CREATED by UK 1900s SUPER POWER = United Kingdom.
United Kingdom had a second go in Middle East after again winning WW2 and created Israel. Who sold Opium to China ? Muslims ? Took away Hong Kong ?

Danish Bahi Are Shia Muslim attacking anywhere as terrorists ? No. Are Sunni other than Wahhabi/Salafi attacking anywhere NO.
Wahhabis are fighting under Al-Baghdadi but Al-Baghdadi was playboy in UK and now trying to be a Wahhabi ! But with USA weapons. How did See More

Danish Bahi Biggest Muslim Country is Indonesia not Saudia. Islam Allows Women to drive. ISLAM of UAE (Dubai) is also full Sharia. So is Iran. EVEN Taliban of Afghanistan Always Allowed women to drive.
Islam in Pakistan and Turkey and Malaysia and Indonesia is not Saudia or Arab Racist Islam. Sorry to say but oil rich Arab Muslims are Racist and fact is every Muslim country (majority Muslim country) has its own Practice of Islam. Mr. Jinnah and Mr. Kamal Atta Turk were HONEST MUSLIMS and better than many Wahhabis.

Danish Bahi Islam (any branch of Islam) NEVER produced Monsters like Stalin, Hitler, Mao. Never.
How brutal were Spanish when taking over South America ? Fighting bows and arrows with Guns and Bullets. Why are 12 South American countries so corrupt ?

Danish Bahi In any case WHY USA and UK etc support bad Saudia so much ?
Taliban or Afghans never attacked USA, only crime was refusal to hand over Osama. Who created bad Taliban ? CIA.
Who was Osama ? = 100% Saudia “educated” then USA educated = Osama and ALL BIN-LADIN family. They all are STILL great friends of Bush. All Saudia Royal Family are full friends of USA.
This all “recent” terror against USA etc could be BLOWBACK of USA foreign policies.

Danish Bahi Another angle non-muslims need to be told is = IT is NOT Muslims threating USA, UK and Europe and Japan etc. IT is CHINA and RUSSIA able / ready to destroy USA.
Al-Baghdadi and others = these are suicidal death groups. Gone mad. Soon within months these “terrorists” will be pushed back in areas/lands they control and these wahhabi type terrorists will be destroyed. Books will be written and truth will be told how Al-Baghdadi got start with new best USA weapons ?

Danish Bahi There are extremist Muslims but they are all SALAFI/WAHHABI or similar Taliban = USA creations. Why UAE or Dubai Islam so different ? It is not different. In Saudia and Pakistan etc CIA has given Mullahs Green Light to become violent.
TTP TALIBAN and AL-BAGHDADI are Satan not Muslims. Taliban are also drug dealers. Muslim kids sitting in Sydney Australia get amazed by Al-Baghdadi violent videos and want to fight and bomb and die.

Be thankful you work in Australia

James Adonis
Published: November 27, 2015 – 12:00AM

There’s much that’s troubling about the United States of America. Gun laws, for instance. Obesity, too, although Australia’s not far behind. To the list you can also add unaffordable healthcare and, of course, the Kardashians. But despite America’s flaws, there’s substantially more to love about the nation, especially the heart-warming Thanksgiving holiday celebrated nationally this week.

It’s an annual tradition lasting more than 150 years – double that if you include its inception back in the 1600s when British settlers held a massive feast to thank God for a bountiful harvest. Nowadays, Thanksgiving prompts many Americans to reflect on all that they’re thankful for – a practice I’m going to engage in today in the context of employment in Australia.

I’m thankful, for instance, that I live in a country where unemployment is lower than almost any other place on the planet. Even if you exclude the developing world, we still do better than Canada, France, New Zealand, Britain and the US. And significantly better if you include other Western nations such as Greece and Spain where a quarter of the population still cannot get a job. Joblessness is a brutal experience but I’d rather it happen to me here than almost anywhere else.

And let’s say that, after spending time in the unemployment queue, the best job I could find was one that paid only the minimum wage. I’m really thankful it’d be a minimum wage determined by an Australian commissioner, since ours is more generous than any other in the OECD. We pay nearly 13 per cent more than Ireland, 52 per cent more than the US, and 844 per cent more than Mexico.

While I’m at work, I’m extremely thankful there’s a lower chance of being injured because workplaces here are governed by robust occupational health and safety laws. People working elsewhere aren’t as fortunate. Our rate of workplace accidents is half that of Canada and Portugal, and almost a third of what Spanish employees endure. In terms of fatalities, our rate is 3.2 deaths for every 100,000 workers. In the US it’s 5.2, in Canada it’s 6.4, in Morocco it’s 47.8.

I’m also thankful that my colleagues are more likely to love their work, to feel connected to their employer and to be innovative, all of which are encapsulated by the term “engagement”. Levels of engagement are 50 per cent higher here than in Canada, and 2½ times greater than they are in France, the Netherlands, South Africa and Indonesia. Things get really bad in places like China (we’re 400 per cent more engaged) and Croatia (800 per cent).

I’m thankful, too, that Australia is an incredibly fertile ground for the launch and growth of new businesses. Sydney, for example, ranks 16th on the list of the world’s most start-up-friendly cities. That ranking is determined not only by the performance of start-ups but also by the funding they attract and the talent they employ. In regards to the annual growth in seed funding, we’re second in the world – ahead of London, New York, Tel Aviv, Singapore, Paris and Silicon Valley.

Let’s also take a look at productivity. The measure preferred by the OECD is the amount of GDP generated by every hour we work. Using that model, we’re more productive than Britain and the European Union. In comparison with our friends across the Tasman, our productivity is almost 50 per cent higher.

So, are any of my comments a reason to become complacent? No. And have I cherry-picked only the most favourable statistics to tell a good story? Yep. But, hey, it’s Thanksgiving. Let’s just leave it at that. For now.

What are you thankful for this Thanksgiving?

Twitter: @jamesadonis. Follow MySmallBusiness on TwitterFacebook and LinkedIn

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Future health issues in Pakistan

Pakistan faces a stunted generation in 15 years


ISLAMABAD: Malnutrition in the country will cost the nation heavily when 44 per cent of today’s children of ages up to five grow up as a stunted and unproductive generation in 10 to 15 years.

This premonition came from none other than the Director Nutrition in the Ministry of National Health Services, Dr Baseer Khan Achakzai, on Tuesday.

“Pakistan is in a state of nutrition emergency as most its nutrition indicators are worse than those in Sub-Saharan Africa,” the official told a seminar organised in connection with the Global Breastfeeding Week, which began over the weekend with the assistance from UNICEF.

Breastfeeding culture is quite dominant in Pakistan, he said, but practically it is far behind other South Asian countries as far as “early and exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months” is concerned.

“Protection of Breastfeeding and Child Nutrition Ordinance was promulgated in 2002 and Breastfeeding Rules came in 2009 but little efforts were made to enforce them both at national and provincial levels,” he said.

Dr Baseer suggested salt iodization and wheat flour fortification to ensure that population gets necessary vitamins and minerals.

On the other hand, National Fortification Alliance (NFA) Coordinator Dr Khawaja Masood Ahmed observed that the health sector alone cannot address the malnutrition problem.

“It is a multi-sector issue,” he said, referring to water and sanitation, education, agriculture and social protection sectors.

UNICEF Nutrition Chief Ms Melanie Galvin, however, counted “lack of awareness” in public as well as in general healthcare providers as “the main issue”.

Dr Baseer later told Dawn that 30 per cent of the children under five suffer from “acute malnutrition”, meaning they are just alive.

“In Pakistan, 38 per cent of mothers ensure exclusive breastfeeding whereas in Bangladesh and Nepal the ratio is 60 and 70 per cent,” he said.

“A newborn should be with the mother within one hour after birth, and be exclusively breastfed for six months – no water during this period. But here only 18 per cent babies are with the mother within an hour of birth,” he added.

In contrast, 41 per cent of mothers bottle-feed their babies, which is dangerous for their health. In Nepal that figure is just four per cent.

Published in Dawn, August 5th, 2015

Egalitarian period in postwar USA

Cinderella’s new moral: Be rich or be a pumpkin

Lynn Stuart Parramore
Published: March 28, 2015 – 10:47AM

In the end, Cinderella gets the prince and the palace, and the other women get absolutely nothing. That's the way of tournaments.
Once upon a time, during a brief egalitarian period in postwar America, people of different classes did not live in separate worlds. The promise of mobility and prosperity was alive throughout the land. In 1950, Walt Disney Productions was saved from bankruptcy with its smash hit “Cinderella,” which audiences cheered at a time when the future looked bright and it was still possible for the dream of marrying up to come true.

A new Disney film of “Cinderella” is a big box-office success today, but how different things look! Cinderella marriages are getting to be as rare as golden coaches. Economist Jeremy Greenwood has found that your chances of marrying outside your income bracket have been dropping since the 1950s because of something called assortative mating, which means that we are increasingly drawn to people in similar circumstances.

Since the 1980s, inequality has grown and mobility has stalled. Today, the rich forge their unions in exclusive social clubs, Ivy League colleges and gated communities. Unless you have a fortune or a fairy godmother, you’re probably out of luck. Without that magic, the gates remain closed.

At first glance, Kenneth Branagh’s remake of the classic Disney film seems to offer a sunny romp through the magic kingdom. But a closer look reveals a troubling economic message.

Economists like Thomas Piketty have been warning that if we don’t do something to stop growing income inequality, we may end up back in a 19th-century world, where hard work won’t lift you up the economic ladder because the income you can expect from labor is no match for inherited wealth. This is the world of the new “Cinderella.”

More so than the original Disney film, Branagh’s version highlights what happens when people are forced to compete for illusive rewards in a harsh economy. Families turn on each other, chances to get ahead are few and you’d better hope for a magic wand.

Subtle changes to the story bring the point home. In the original animated version, the father is a gentleman, a widower who remarries and then promptly dies, leaving a jealous stepmother and her mean-girl daughters to torment his beloved only child. But in Branagh’s film, the father is a merchant, and his death deprives the family of his income – leaving them all in straitened circumstances.

The stepmother’s first thought on hearing of her husband’s demise is entirely practical: How shall we survive economically? Her answer: Turn Cinderella into a servant and search for wealthy matches for her two daughters.

The marriage market illustrated in the movie reflects what economists like Robert H. Frank describe as a tournament, a “winner-take-all” game associated with economies where wealth is increasingly concentrated at the top. In these cutthroat markets, only a handful of people can win big, while the rest are left with little.

Cinderella and her stepsisters are locked in a down-and-dirty competition for scarce resources, and they understand how high the stakes are. Luckily for her, Cinderella possesses advantages that her sisters lack: She is beautiful and charming.

She is clever, too. But there’s no notion that her intelligence can be put to any use other than besting her competitors in the marriage tournament. She’s not going to be looking for a job or an education. That’s for suckers. Or peasants.

The importance of being rich is clear when Cinderella goes to the ball – the fairy godmother must make her appear to be a wealthy young lady. You can’t win the prize dressed in rags. The film may give lip service to the values of kindness and courage, but it’s the ability to gain access to luxuries like a bedazzled gown and golden coach that really gets you places.

The privileges of the prince and his fellow one-percenters are simply accepted as an immutable law of the universe. There’s no notion of busting up the system, Katniss Everdeen-style. Best to just accept it and grab the goodies if you can.

In the end, Cinderella gets the prince and the palace, and the other women get absolutely nothing. That’s the way of tournaments.

The postwar America that was demonstrates that extreme inequality does not have to be our reality. Americans can write their own story so that even people without a fortune can lead a secure and dignified life. Things like making the rich pay their share in taxes, allowing unions to organize and increasing fiscal spending on things like infrastructure and jobs would ensure that many more Americans could expect a happy ending.

But Branagh’s “Cinderella” in no way attempts to question, much less abolish, a paradigm of haves and have-nots that leaves us with fewer opportunities. The film teaches little viewers a harsh lesson: If you’re not rich, you may as well be a pumpkin.


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