Reasons for declining fertility rates in Pakistan.

Pakistan sixth most populous country in world: survey

* Life expectancy increased from 65.8% (female) and 63.9% (male) in 2010-11 to 66.1% (f) and 64.3% (m) in 2011-12

http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=20136\17\story_17-6-2013_pg12_7

KARACHI: Pakistan is sixth most populous country in the world with an estimated population of 184.35 million in 2012-2013.

The growth rate of population during 2012-2013 is 2.0 percent. Under current circumstances, it is expected that Pakistan will attain fifth position in the world in terms of total population in 2050.

According to new Economic Survey of Pakistan 2012-13, the comparison of population data published by Population Reference Bureau shows that the world population growth rate reduced from 1.4 percent in 2011 to 1 percent in 2012. Nevertheless the decreased growth rate added 71 million people in global population, and the total world population crossed the figure of seven billion at the end of June 2012. Each year the number of human beings is on the rise, but the availability of natural resources, required to sustain this population, to improve the quality of human lives and to eliminate mass poverty remains finite.

Resultantly, these resources are becoming scarce and incapable of fulfilling ever increasing demand of population. The main affectees of increasing population are the developing countries where population growth rate is higher than developed countries while availability and use of natural resources is scarce as compared to developed world. However, this issue can be handled by advancement in technology and human resource development.

Increased investment in the technological development and higher labour productivity through improvement in education, health and training facilities are the main modes of increasing productivity of human resources.

People are living longer in both industrial and developing countries because of increased access to immunisation, primary health care, and disease eradication programs. In Pakistan, life expectancy has also increased from 65.8 (female) and 63.9 (male) in 2010-11 to 66.1 (female) and 64.3 (male) in 2011-12.

Age composition of a population is the number of people in different age groups in a country. It is one of the most basic characteristics of a population. A person’s age influence what he needs, buys, does, and thinks. The study of age composition of population is also helpful in determining the proportion of the labour force in total population. It also facilitates in understanding about the dependent population, longevity and aged population. According to age composition, population of a nation is categorized into three broad groups. These are Children (young), adult (middle age) and aged (old age).

The adult population is considered as wealth of a nation in terms of human resource. Adult population (15-59) has increased from 104 million in 2011 to 110 million in 2013. This age structure of a population affects a nation’s key socioeconomic issues. These people are economically productive and they comprise the working population.

Nevertheless, the rapid growth in this group can become problematic, if they are unable to find employment. However, the government with appropriate polices can utilise this youth bulge for the development of the economy. The population in third group (60 years and above) has shown a mild increase i.e. less than one million during 2011 to 2013 period. Total fertility is a general term covers the relationship between the current population (typically the current female population) and current numbers of births.

Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. The fertility rate has rapidly declined in those countries which achieved major improvements in child survival rates and educational levels and have implemented family planning programs as well.

The increased access to family planning is helping parents to control the number and spacing of their children. In addition, with greater access to education and jobs more women are starting their families later and are having fewer healthier children. The fertility rate is continuously declining and reached at 3.3 in 2013. There are number of reasons for declining fertility rates in Pakistan. However, the main reasons are the introduction of the family planning methods, increased workforce participation by women and increased costs of child rearing. ppi

 

Fraud Satanic killings

Too much Fraud Jihad happening.
The Syrian civil war is an ongoing armed conflict in Syria between forces loyal to the Syrian Ba’ath Party government and those seeking to oust it. The conflict began on 15 March 2011, with popular demonstrations that grew nationwide by April 2011. These demonstrations were part of the wider Middle Eastern protest movement known as the Arab Spring. Protesters demanded the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad, whose family has held the presidency in Syria since 1971, as well as the end of Ba’ath Party rule.
I Swear these crimes are getting worse and worse every day and there are still some supporters on this forum who claim that there are moderates amongst barbaric savages..ever some claim im delusional my question is am I delusional for hating these people or are the people who support and do these things delusional? SHAME ON OBAMA shame on european leaders

http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=abc_1371591942

Add this :::
|  Islamabad  June 17, 2013 Last Updated at 14:36 IST

TTP demands ‘protection money’ from Pakistani businessmen to sustain jihad

The Pakistani Taliban has reportedly asked two local businessmen to pay ‘protection money’ to help militants carry out ‘jihad’.

A senior police official told Dawn News that the chief executive of an Islamabad-based business establishment had received four letters allegedly from the head of the banned organization Tehreek-i-Taliban Pakistan’s (TTP) ‘finance wing’.

The businessman has been asked to pay 25 million dollars. The letter, bearing the name of its sender, said the money was needed for jihad and it would be received abroad (in Dubai).

According to the report, the TTP threatened that its ‘operational wing’ would come into action if the money was not paid.

Police said a man delivered a letter and a Universal Serial Bus or USB (a data storage device) at the office of Raja Hanif, who is the father-in-law of Sadaqat Abbasi, who contested the recent general elections as a candidate of the Pakistan Tehreek-i-Insaf from Murree.

Hanif said in a statement recorded by the police that the letter had been written on the TTP’s letterhead.

Yellow Duck sinks again

Aussie News website news ::

Liverpool’s ‘Yellow Duckmarine’ tour boat sinks

More than 30 people were rescued on Saturday after a tourist vessel sank in the historic Albert dock in the British city of Liverpool, authorities said.

All 31 passengers, including children, on board the amphibious “Yellow Duckmarine” were accounted for and none of them suffered serious injuries, said Merseyside Fire and Rescue Service.

The Royal Liverpool Hospital treated 17 people but they were later discharged.

The Yellow Duckmarine vessels ferry tourists around the northwest English city, famed for being the hometown of The Beatles.

“I was down by the Albert Docks doing some shopping when I noticed something didn’t look right about the Duckmarine,” eyewitness Tim Olsen told the BBC.

“It only took about four minutes to go down. The police, ambulance and air ambulance services arrived on the scene quickly and I think they got everybody off OK.”

Authorities banned the four Yellow Duckmarines from going into water after one sank in March, but they were declared safe again in May.

The Mayor of Liverpool Joe Anderson refused to speculate on their future.

“Albert Dock Duck incident, look I will not make any official comment on future of these ducks until we know people are all OK [and] accounted for,” he wrote on Twitter.

AFP

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Her Majesty, The Queen joined us for a ride on The Yellow Duckmarine.
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He said: “These craft are ex-World War II, they’re far too old, and they can’t afford to repair them and keep them up to the standard required.

Eyewitness Tim Olsen: “They only had seconds to get out, it went down very quickly”

“It’s a matter of time before somebody is killed”.

In 2012, the Queen was given a tour of the dock on one of the vehicles when she visited the region as part of her Diamond Jubilee tour.

************************************

Actual website of Yellow Duck tourist business :
http://www.theyellowduckmarine.co.uk/Default.aspx

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Dubai boasts world’s tallest twisted tower

My FRIENDS Which country makes me PROUD ? Dubai standing up to OIL RICH WAHHABI Saudia Royal suckers.

Dubai boasts world’s tallest twisted tower

Date     June 14,  2013 – 10:31 AM           

http://www.smh.com.au/travel/travel-news/dubai-boasts-worlds-tallest-twisted-tower-20130614-2o83d.html

Imposing structure: the Cayan Tower.Imposing structure: the Cayan Tower. Photo: AFP

Dubai has inaugurated the world’s tallest twisted tower built at a cost of  $US272 million ($288.3 million), setting yet another record for skyscrapers and  other engineering marvels.

The 310-metre, 75-storey residential Cayan Tower is twisted at 90 degrees  from top to bottom and was inaugurated earlier this week in Dubai Marina – a  man-made canal overlooking the Gulf.

Developer Cayan Real Estate Investment and Development Company said 80 per  cent of its residential units had already been sold.

Tower with a twist: construction began in 2006.Tower with a twist: construction began in 2006. Photo: AFP

Construction began in 2006, but was delayed due to major technical problems  and the 2009 economic downturn in Dubai triggered by the global financial  crisis.

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The tower was designed by Chicago-based Skidmore Owings and Merrill, the  masterminds behind Burj Khalifa, which is the world’s tallest tower and also in  Dubai.

The 828-metre, 160-storey Burj Khalifa broke engineering and architectural  records when it opened in January 2010.

In May 2012, Dubai opened the 413.4-metre Princess Tower, the world’s tallest  residential building, according to the Guinness World Records website.

And later in 2012, the emirate inaugurated the world’s tallest hotel – the  355-metre twin tower JW Marriott Marquis Dubai.

AFP

Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/travel/travel-news/dubai-boasts-worlds-tallest-twisted-tower-20130614-2o83d.html#ixzz2WEfAex3B

Dubai Racing

Dubai sets an EXAMPLE of a FORWARD LOOKING Muslim country – Without its own oil ONLY way was to become a country like Singapore and Korea or Hong Kong. Where INTERNATIONAL INVESTORS can put their cash without fear !!

Bets and bubbly aside, it’s big-money racing

Date     May 12, 2013        

Two western women among Emirati men at Dubai races.Two western women among Emirati men at Dubai races. Photo: Getty  Images.

In the sport of kings, Dubai is a long way from Flemington and Royal  Randwick, writes Rob McFarland.

I feel like I’m watching the opening scene from a movie. Projected across one  of the world’s longest video screens – a 108-metre monster that looms over the  track at Meydan Racecourse – is the image of Dubai ruler Sheikh Mohammed bin  Rashid al Maktoum. He’s strolling nonchalantly towards the winners’ enclosure,  surrounded by friends and family, all immaculately dressed in traditional  Arabian kanduras.

This is no public relations stunt. The sheikh is a horse-racing fanatic who  regularly makes an appearance at Meydan to watch one of his vast stable of  thoroughbreds. His Godolphin stable, which he started with his brothers in 1992,  is one of the largest in the world and has generated more than 200 Group One  (elite-grade) winners.

Horses parading at Meydan Racecourse, Dubai.Horses parading at Meydan Racecourse, Dubai. Photo: Photo: Rob  McFarland.

Godolphin is named after the Godolphin Arabian – one of three horses brought  from the Arabian Peninsula to Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries to be bred  for racing. The other two are the Darley Arabian and the Byerley Turk, and all  modern-day thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to one of these three  horses.

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For the next hour or so, the sheikh roams around the winners’ enclosure,  watching each race intently, checking his phone and chatting with trainers. He  greets each of Godolphin’s jockeys as they arrive, including the ebullient  Frankie Dettori, who performs his trademark star jump dismount to the delight of  the crowd.

While seeing the sheikh is an unexpected highlight, there are many other  reasons to include a visit to Meydan on your Dubai itinerary. For a start,  general admission is free. And although gambling is not allowed, you can still  win cash prizes by predicting winners on the free Pick 6 game card. Above all,  there’s the sheer spectacle of the place. From the outside, Meydan looks more  like a futuristic concert venue than a racecourse.

At 1.6 kilometres long, its grandstand is the largest in world horse racing  with 15,000 tiered seats and a capacity of 60,000. It looks particularly  impressive at night, when its striking solar and titanium roof is bathed in a  plume of red and purple lights. In addition to two racing tracks – a 1750-metre  all-weather course and a 2400-metre turf one – the complex contains the world’s  first trackside five-star hotel, where 95 per cent of the rooms have a view of  the action.

There’s also an elevated private access road that leads to the royal  enclosure and is for the exclusive use of the sheikh and his guests.

All this glitz and glamour is trademark Dubai, but what is refreshing is that  the venue draws people from all walks of life. While the corporate boxes and  fine-dining restaurants are filled with wealthy Emiratis and expats, trackside  you’ll find construction workers from the enormous immigrant workforce that has  been instrumental in Dubai’s startling transformation over the past 15  years.

What you won’t find is the alcohol-fuelled exuberance of the Randwick spring  carnival. Because the complex contains a hotel, all the bars and restaurants  serve alcohol, but people come to Meydan for the excitement of watching the  races – not to get legless.

Dubai’s racing season begins in November but things don’t really hot up until  the Dubai World Cup Carnival, an 11-week extravaganza that starts in January and  culminates with the world’s richest race, the Dubai World Cup. The prizemoney  for this one race, held on the last Saturday in March, is a cool $US10  million.

Godolphin has won six times, most recently in 2012 with Monterosso, but this  year it was won by an American horse, Animal Kingdom. The Kentucky Derby winner  held off a blistering late challenge from Melbourne Cup runner-up Red Cadeaux to  win by two lengths.

Although the horse is American-bred and trained, he was until recently 75 per  cent owned by John Messara, of Arrowfield Stud in NSW. As Messara was presented  with the trophy by Sheikh Mohammed, Advance Australia Fair played in the  background. The sheikh must have been suitably impressed because, four days  later, he bought a 29 per cent stake in the stallion.

The horse everyone would love to have seen in Dubai is Black Caviar. She was  due to appear in 2012, but her owners withdrew her a month before her scheduled  arrival to rest her before she headed to Royal Ascot. The undefeated mare was  retired in April to start her breeding career so there’s still hope that one of  her offspring may one day be bought by Godolphin and race at Meydan. Now that  would make a great movie.

Rob McFarland travelled as a guest of Dubai Tourism.

 

Trip notes

Getting there

Emirates flies three times a day from Sydney to Dubai with return economy  airfares from $1900. 1300 303 777, emirates.com/au.

Visiting there

General admission is free and includes grandstand seating and trackside  access. Admission for the Dubai World Cup meet is 25 dirham ($6.60). Premium  packages including VIP seating, food and drink are also available. dubairacingclub.com.

Staying there

During the racing season, rates at the 284-room five-star Meydan Hotel start  from $US250 ($243) a night. meydanhotels.com/meydan.

More information

meydan.ae; definitelydubai.com.

Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/travel/bets-and-bubbly-aside-its-bigmoney-racing-20130509-2jaf0.html#ixzz2WEdLQLQX

DNA controversy: abolition of Council of Islamic Ideology demanded

http://dawn.com/2013/06/08/dna-controversy-abolition-of-council-of-islamic-ideology-demanded/

KARACHI, June 7: Participants in a roundtable meeting organised by civil society groups on Friday understood that there was no need of institutions such as the Council of Islamic Ideology (CII), which ‘does nothing but hinders other institutions — and state at large — in their working on progressive path’.

“We have to throw a spanner in the works of the CII, which has largely been used as a boon by the rulers to entice the religion-based political parties,” said Anis Haroon, who represented Women Action Forum, which co-hosted the meeting with the Aurat Foundation at the Arts Council of Pakistan, Karachi.

In the meeting, experts from legal and medical fields had been invited to cast light on the CII recent statement declaring the DNA evidence as supporting evidence and not the primary proof in a rape case. A former CII member, Dr Mohsin Muzaffar Naqvi, was also there to speak on the matters he tackled as an active scholar until recently.

The meeting was attended by various civil rights groups, activists, local politicians and educationists.

When a brief resolution was tabled at the meeting asking the participants if they wanted the CII remained a constitutional body, most of the participants opposed it demanding that it should be abolished in the ‘larger interest of a progressive and tolerant society’.

Barrister Zain Shaikh, who was invited as a legal expert and Dr Naqvi, however, said the CII should remain a constitutional body with improved scholarly shape or, they said, religious matters without its existence could stir more controversies and predicaments.

“The participants have unanimously demanded abolishment of the CII,” said Uzma Noorani, who moderated the meeting. She made it clear that the experts’ difference of opinion fell in the ambit of guests who had been invited to talk about the complications relating to the issue.

Ms Haroon said the composition of the CII had been changing in different regimes at the convenience of the rulers and political environment and its chair and memberships had been used for political gains.

“Right now the CII’s office is virtually working as an office of the Jamiat-i-Ulema Islam of Maulana Fazlur Rehman,” she said.

She said the organisations such as the CII, instead of creating harmony in the society, antagonised women and religious minorities and instigated sectarianism.

She added that religion-based parties had got delayed the sexual harassment bill in the senate, which denied it to become a law.

“Fortunately, after the 18th Constitutional Amendment that matter came to the province and this law has been passed at least in Sindh,” she said.

Referring to the Mukhtaran Mai rape case, she said the Supreme Court, while disposing of the case, said there was no DNA tests confirming the rape.

She said in a rape case of a 13-year-old girl in Rawalpindi against the Punjab government, the Supreme Court laid down procedures, which directed for DNA testing, early registration of FIR etc.

“The CII recommendation is against the very order of the Supreme Court,” she said.

Dr Rubina Hasan said the first 12 hours after a rape were very important for investigation of the case. She said a victim should come to a hospital for DNA instead of a police station so that her DNA samples could be taken in time to bring the perpetrators to the book.

“The time is very important. The rape victim should not wash her body or clothes before coming to us. She should be brought to hospital within 12 hours or not beyond 48 hours. It gets difficult for us if a victim is brought to us after 48 hours,” she said.

She said DNA testing was the best justice one could impart to a victim – and even a suspect.

“DNA is very important and a 100 per cent reliable method to bring about quick justice. It supports both victims and the accused as well. It is the best way to provide justice,” she said.

Dr Naqvi said the CII had been established in 1971 as an advisory body. He explained that the council’s composition had been changing from time to time and one set of individuals composing the body could reverse a decision taken by its predecessors.

He said the council’s recommendations were sent to the parliament, which could accept or reject them. He said the council preferred the directions implicitly given in Holy Quran or Hadith over manmade laws or technology.

‘CII acts as filter’

Barrister Shaikh said the CII was to comprise a minimum of eight or not more than 20 members. He said the council should not be abolished, as it was a filter to tackle the religious matters, which, otherwise could generate more controversy.

“Steps should be taken to improve its scholarly strength instead of calling for its abolition,” he said.

Some participants criticised the clerics who ‘exploit the religion for their own benefit’ and added that in certain parts of the country ‘religious zealots punish women without complying the Islamic injunctions’.

More solutions for DREAM ELECTRICITY

IN the letter, ‘Conserving electricity’ (May 28), the writer has suggested, in addition to conserving energy, some other measures like solar energy to fill in the gap between production and consumption. A good piece of advice but the culture of extravagance stands in the way of conservation.
http://dawn.com/2013/06/03/power-crisis-hydroelectric-dams/

The writer has ignored the potential of mega hydroelectric dams saying that it would take a long time and more finances. It is common knowledge that a mega dam is built to produce cheap energy, which is not entirely correct.

The primary purpose of a hydroelectric dam is to store water that is available only in abundance for 70 days in a year to serve our agricultural needs, while wind or solar energy and coal do not produce water at all.

In the craze to meet power shortage we invested $2 billion to install 10 million UPS units and $800 million worth batteries to go with them. The Kalabagh Dam, which was ready for tenders in 1985 and would have been completed by 1993, could have produced 3,600 MW of power and stored 6.1 MAF of water to boost our agriculture but this was not to be due to politicians’ dithering, while India has built scores of dams on our western rivers.

We have, meanwhile, wasted four decades in not building a single mega hydroelectric dam while suggesting gimmicks like wind and solar power whose initial cost is prohibitive.

Recently, Rs10 billion has been released to generate 50 MW of wind energy. This has little worth.

The solar energy, at present is limited to petrol pumps and some small industrial units, while the initial cost for a house in the DHA is about Rs0.5 million which cannot be met by all the people.

Examples of a solar experimental plane are irrelevant for us which have still not passed through dark ages of 12 to 14 hours of loadshedding in a day. The sad story of IPPs and RPPs is before us as a NAB inquiry case that includes former prime minister Raja Pervez Ashraf.

As they say first thing first, a bullet train can wait till our students can get electricity at home and fuel for preparing breakfast before school and a guarantee to reach school safely as has been negated by the loss of 16 innocent children on their way to school in a rickety van.

DR M. BHATTI
Lahore

IESCO’s negligence costs thousands to poor consumers

IESCO’s negligence costs thousands to poor consumers
http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=201368\story_8-6-2013_pg11_6

* Consumers allegedly being sent bills based on random readings

* Complain of malpractice in metre-reading

ISLAMABAD: Charging random billing and continuous negligence of top officials of Islamabad Electricity Supply Company (IESCO) is costing thousands of rupees to poor consumers.

It is very common in twin cities that consumers receive electricity bills on the basis of random meter reading and scores of meter readers deployed for taking monthly reading do not approach their designated areas.

These meter readers continue recording random reading by sitting in offices and without visiting the designated places and houses and the departments without counter-checking if there was any anomaly, send the bills to consumers.

Consequently after random reading of three to four months the units shown by the meters reach to hundreds and sometimes thousands. Thereafter, the authority sends cumulative bill in thousands not only astonishing and agonising the consumers, but also opening avenues for corruption.

The recent incident was noted in new settlements in the suburbs of the capital like PWD Colony, Korang Town and Pakistan Town where certain consumers are receiving electricity bills based on random reading.

As the area falls in the jurisdiction of Korang sub-division, this scribe tried to contact the officials responsible for the area. But, it was amazing to note that neither the EXEN nor the SDO of the area were available on designated number.

Most of the consumers believe that these numbers were given on the utility bills just to hoodwink the consumers as none of these responsible officials could be reached to register the complaint.

It is also very common that the meter readers deployed in this sub-division especially Pakistan Town do not regularly visit their area for reading. So, their negligence becomes a nuisance for the consumers when they all of a sudden receive heavy bills comprising the reading of the previous months.

Since there are different rates for different slabs, charging bills for cumulative units means to charge rates of top slab to the consumers who even use nominal electricity. Such billings also means fleecing thousands from the poor consumers by charging additional GST surcharges that increase considerably when the units fall in the category of top slabs.

“Why we are penalised for the fault what we have not committed. It is negligence of the meter readers, but consumers have to pay for it and there is nobody to heed our problem,” said a consumer.

It shocks such ordinary bread-earners of their families when they receive the bill in thousands sent to them on the basis of cumulative units. “We pay our bills regularly. But, if these bills are issued on the basis of random reading, it is not our fault,” said a consumer.

Some consumers have also complained that after sending heavy bills or after knowing that reading of a meter crosses 2000 to 3000 units, they themselves approach the consumers to correct the reading and claim almost half of the estimated cost. Thereon they take away the meters and then return after reversing the reading. This malpractice very much continues even in the posh localities in the suburbs of the capital and the IESCO is least bothered to save the consumers from this day light robbery.

The consumers have demanded from the new government as well as new Water and Power minister to immediately take notice of this corruption to save the consumers and ensure the money goes to national kitty instead the pockets of corrupt officials and meter readers. app

 

 

 

June 2013 – The changing face of Australian immigration

The changing face of Australian immigration

http://theconversation.com/the-changing-face-of-australian-immigration-14984

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The changing face of Australia was on display this week after a new report listed India and China as providing more permanent migrants to Australia than the UK. AAP/David Crosling

The face of Australia is changing – and it starts at our borders.

Whereas Australia’s migrant population once hailed largely from a European background – think of the “Ten Pound Pom” in the post-World War Two era – a decisive shift towards parts of Asia to fill skills gaps in our workforce has emerged.

In 2011-12, India (29,018) and China (25,509) were ahead of Australia’s traditional source country for permanent migrants, the United Kingdom, which dropped to fourth on the list with 25,274 migrants.

Immigration is also now geared to the needs of the Australian labour market. 68% of all arrivals now come under the skilled migrant category of the permanent immigration program.

Australia remains a cosmopolitan nation, truly the world in one country. But the new immigration figures continue over a decade or so long trend: Australia has now changed from a settler immigration county to one where guest workers are arriving in large and increasing numbers.

Facts and figures

A government report released this week highlighted the pace and changing ethnic composition of contemporary Australian immigration.

The 2011-12 permanent migrant intake of 184,998 – or just over 200,000 when the humanitarian (refugee) intake is added – is one of the largest on record.

New Zealanders remained the biggest group of arrivals to Australia in 2011-12, with nearly 45,000 crossing the ditch. However, they can come to Australia at will – and are thus not counted under the migration program – because of the Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Arrangement.

Temporary migrant numbers

However, the impact of immigration is significantly greater when the temporary immigration program is also considered. India and China also fill the top two places in the temporary migration program.

In the past year temporary immigrants (679,333) outnumbered permanent immigrants (201,850) by a ratio of around three to one. Some 253,047 of these were foreign students, with working holiday makers (222,922) and temporary long stay business visas (125,070), mostly on 457 visas, taking up most of the other temporary migrant places.

The dramatic increase of temporary immigrant arrivals in the past decade is the biggest change in over six decades of Australian immigration policy.

As one of the “big four” traditional settler immigration nations (along with the UK, Canada and New Zealand), Australia previously linked immigration policy and immigrants to nation-building and citizenship.

The guest worker debate

It is amazing that this dramatic change to Australian immigration policy has slipped under the radar. There has been little debate about temporary immigration until the past few years when concerns about the exploitation of temporary skilled immigrants on 457 visas have been prominent in the media.

Aside from New Zealanders, Indians now make up the largest number of permanent migrants to Australia. AAP/David Crosling

It seems that the disproportionate anxiety about “boat people”, driven in part by the bi-partisan political opportunism to be gained when playing the “foreign worker” card (as prime minister Julia Gillard did infamously at her Rooty Hill speech earlier this year), has stolen the oxygen from the guest workers immigration debate.

The “advantage” of guest workers is that when their labour is no longer needed – owing to the structural change or cyclical decline of the Australian economy that eliminated their job – they will go home or somewhere else in their journey as global workers.

The evidence from other countries is not good in this regard. The Turkish gastarbeiter or guest workers who arrived in Germany in the 1960s and 1970s are still there, with their children and grandchildren. Temporary workers have a tendency to want to stay. France tried to pay temporary immigrants to return to Africa a decade ago but it didn’t work.

But temporary immigrants do make good permanent immigrants. In Australia many temporary immigrants transform into permanent immigrants. Nearly half (42.9%) of places in the 2011-12 migration program went to those already in Australia under a temporary visa.

This makes sense: those who have experience living, working and or studying in Australia are the very people we should take in because their prospects of successful settlement are strong.