The Mughal dynasty in India was Muslim and was founded by Babur / Babar (1483-1530), a Turkic conqueror from Central Asia. Babar was a descendant of Tamerlane (1336 -1405), the Turkic conqueror, by his father, and a descendant of Genghis Khan (1162-1227) by his mother.Babar is derived from the Persian word “babr” which means “tiger” .
Who was Akbar (1542-1605)?
He was the emperor of the Mughal Empire from 1556-1605.His name “akbar” means “great” in Arabic and he is regarded as the greatest Mughal emperor of India.
An illiterate emperor
Like some famous persons in history Akbar was illiterate,like:
1.Siddharta Gautama, the “Buddha” (560-480 BCE)
2.Charlemagne (742-814), King of the Franks in 768 and Emperor from 800-814.
3.Francisco Pizarro (1471-1541), Spanish conqueror of the Inca Empire.
As for Akbar, four tutors tried unsuccessfully to teach him to read. One possible reason is that he was dyslexic.
The conquests of Akbar
In 1556, Akbar succeeded his father Humayun as head of a small Muslim kingdom in northern India. He was 14 years old then and his guardian Bairam Khan ruled in his place. Akbar won the battle of Panipat,which assured the Mughal presence in India.
In 1560 he decided to break free from the tutelage of Bairam Khan and end his regency. The latter did not accept it and he was executed.
Akbar expanded his empire by the conquest of Gujarat in 1573, Bengal in 1576, Sind in 1590, Orissa in 1592 and Baluchistan in 1594. At the death of his brother Hakim, King of Kabul, in 1585, he inherited Kashmir. He then began to conquer parts of southern India.